Structures and Systems in Kihbernetics

A Structural Approach

Merriam Webster defines Structure is defined as:

1 : the action of building : construction
2a : something (such as a building) that is constructed
b : something arranged in a definite pattern of organization – a rigid totalitarian structure
3 : manner of construction : makeup – Gothic in structure
4a : the arrangement of particles or parts in a substance or bodysoil structure
b : organization of parts as dominated by the general character of the wholeeconomic structurepersonality structure
c : coherent form or organizationtried to give some structure to the children’s lives
5 : the aggregate of elements of an entity in their relationships to each otherthe structure of a language

It is obvious that the noun refers primarily to an arrangement of interrelated parts, a set-up, configuration, framework etc. which consists of a number of individual elements and can be distinguished against its environment as a whole. As such, the term is closely related to that of Architecture, which is mainly used to identify a particular class of similarly organized structures (e.g. distributed software architecture).

At this point I would like to add few caveats I believe are important:

  1. The elements of the structure must be different from each other in shape and/or nature, otherwise the structure is just a heap of material;
  2. A structure is also passive, that is, a structure is not able to pare or evade any particular influence from the environment.
  3. A structure must be stable enough to be observed and may be static or dynamic in nature. In either case the organization, state and behaviour of a structure is in any given moment completely predictable.

The term Structure is very similar to that of System which is in the same dictionary defined as:

1 : a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified wholea number system : such as
a(1) : a group of interacting bodies under the influence of related forces – a gravitational system
a(2) : an assemblage of substances that is in or tends to equilibrium – a thermodynamic system
b(1) : a group of body organs that together perform one or more vital functions – the digestive system
b(2) : the body considered as a functional unit
c : a group of related natural objects or forces – a river system
d :a group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose – a telephone systema heating system – a highway systema computer system
e : a major division of rocks usually larger than a series and including all formed during a period or era
f : a form of social, economic, or political organization or practice – the capitalist system
2 : an organized set of doctrines, ideas, or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole – the Newtonian system of mechanics
3a : an organized or established procedurethe touch system of typing
b : a manner of classifying, symbolizing, or schematizing – a taxonomic systemthe decimal system
4 : harmonious arrangement or pattern : order – bring system out of confusion— Ellen Glasgow
5 : an organized society or social situation regarded as stultifying or oppressive : establishment sense 2 —usually used with the

Now, it might become obvious, when analyzing this list of definitions, that most of them can be applied equally to the previously discussed term of Structure “an arrangement of interrelated elements that can also be identified as a whole“.
The only definitions for the word system that seems somewhat different from the definition of structure are those that include concepts such as function, being for instead of something or having a purpose, like b(1), b(2) and d.

In Kihbernetics if we want to see if some observed phenomena can be identified as a system we ask not the question “what is it made of?“, but rather “what is it for?“. If the answer is not immediately obvious, the thing is probably a structure. Terms like “software system” and “system of systems” do not actually anything about that “system” except for what is it made of. The stuff the system is made of is important only when speaking about its structure(s). The system’s structures can be made of material, energy, or informational elements. When defining a system, what is important is the function (behaviour, purpose) of the whole and that of its components. The ambiguous term of “software system” could identify both a “software product” (a structure) used in an, for example, “air traffic control system“, or even a “software development system“.

In Kihbernetics we would identify a gravitational or planetary system as a mere dynamical structures, because there is no obvious input-output relationship between, let’s say, the Solar system and its environment (the surrounding void?) or between the elements that are part of such a “system“. The state of this dynamical structure in any given point in time is completely predictable and can be precisely calculated by using Newton’s laws of motion and universal gravitation.

This discussion might look like “splitting hairs“, but after decades of working in “Systems Engineering” I came to appreciate the subtle difference between developing a “product” and a “system“. In too many occasions I saw the consequences of failing to understand the difference between the two, claiming that we are developing a system while in fact investing a disproportionate amount of attention and resources to the development of the product, and neglecting the other two necessary components of the, so called, “Socio-technical system (STS)“, people and process.

With an increasing interest in “Systems Thinking“, various “Systems Approaches” and “Complex Systems Theory” it is important to agree on the meaning of fundamental terms among which system and structure have a prominent role. A “Kihbernetic approach” is primarily interested in non-linear “dynamical systems with memory” sometimes identified as “autonomous agents“, “autopoietic” or “living” systems an may help in clearing some of the confusion.

An Operational Approach

As described in the section above one of the main differences between a structure and a system is that a structure does not have a clear input-output relationship with the environment like a system does.